1755. A Diary.

A close as possible reproduction of a hand written book I have.

Monday, November 06, 2006

1755.A Diary



as no great Preparation was Necefsary, I left Leeds in lefs than four Weeks after the Resolution was taken: and on Monday 29th September 1755. was Accompanied on my journey as far as Ferry-bridge, by Mr.Robt.Green, and my Friend Thos. Wroe: we Dined together, and then Parted. At this Place I met with a young Apothecary; who According to his promise joined me at Doncaster that night, and we travelled very peacably together to Bugden; whence as we were Departing we were joined by three other persons. One of them an Attorney with a servant, the other a young Man called Atkinson,who upon Explanation told me he had served his Apprenticefhip at Leeds: had since been on a voyage to Canton in China; and was now returning from a Visit to his friends in Yorkshire; to proceed again on the same Voyage in December. I was much pleased with him as being a Townsman, Going upon a voyage Ten Times further than Mine; and a person of Good Common Sense. As the deficiency of some of our Horses obliged us to make very Easy Stages we did not reach London till the 3rd of Octobr.

Arrived at.

London Oct 3d

I took up my Lodgings with Coz.Jose Green, and after I had done what little Businefs I could do there; seen a few friends, and forwarded my Trunk of Clothes to Exeter, I took a place for myself



Departed thence the 10th

In the Stage Coach for that place; for which we sett off about 5 in the morning of Friday the 10th Oct. We were three of each sex, viz a Mr Jones a distiller at Plymouth and his wife both about the age of 55. His daughter(by a former Wife) about 15, a Mifs Glyde about 30. And Mr Rigby 25. The Distiller was of course the Head or Patriarch of the whole Community: was first up and Disturbed all the House in a morning, Calling us up so early, that we had often to Wait half an hour of the Coachman, who did not so much Regard his Vociferation. Under any little Difsapointments Mr. Jones’ philosophy not of much Service to him, for he was Very Apt to be peevish and hasty: but still in the main was a Goodnatured, Merry, Song-singing Companion. In his younger days he had been a Considerable traveller; to both the Indies, Guinea, Sweden. Denmark: thence home,and kept Distilleries at London and Plym o.

Had been Col. Of the Blew Regiment of Train’d Bands and had the City of London committed to his Care for One Night . In short spent near ?200 in the service of the publick in the critical year of 1745 and as most Ample Recompence, had the Honour of Kifsing his Majesty’s hand. but notwithstanding all these Aquisitions of Experience, and Honour, he was not Quite a Witch, unlefs (as it has




often happened) an Old Woman should be Mistaken for One. His Wife (a Second one) had kept a Boarding School at Cheshunt in Hertfordshire; and was now for the First Time, going with her Husband to her new Habitation at Plymouth. She was you may be sure, a Mighty Well Bred Woman; really very Civil, and Good natured; and what was Best of all, had along with her a Budget containing many Good Things, which served us to Mange about the Middle of a Long Stage; as Figgy Pudding, Biscuit Cake, Small Tongues, Candied Ginger, Lavender drops, Loaf Sugar and the like: very necefsary to Prevent Fainting Fits upon the Road. The Daughter was little more than an Expletive in the Coach to prevent us from jolting too much; and only furnished with a few Common Place Exprefsions of Boarding school Good breeding; which a parrot of good natural parks Might be taught to Repeat and Adapt occasionaly in a few Months; she had got a few pafsages in Milton by Rote and I suppose been taught to Recite them; but it would have made Milton Mad to have heard her. Mifs Glyde was I know not what; had neither Father, Mother, Brother, nor Sister: but named an Uncle or two in Devonshire; was not going to either of them, but to a friend’s house within a Mile of Exon: she had been a year in London, and in that Time, had the Small Pox; some Spots wherof were still remaining upon her Face, & hands; if she ever had any Beauty, Alas! It was now vanished. She had however what is infinitely more estimable viz a Great Deal of Good Sense, Good nature, and Vivacity;and was in the



whole a Very Agreable Companion. The other Young gentleman Mr.Rigby,was a clergymans son,but apprentice to xxxxx a Surgeon at Boston in Lincolnshire, and had now a Warrant to Serve as Surgeons mate on board the Saltash Sloop; which he expected was lying at Plymouyh ready for Sailing; and was Accordingly hasting hither. He wore a silver laced Hat, Talked much of Balls, & Afsemblies he had been at; of Shooting, Hunting, Fluting, and all the Genteel Qualifications: Was a very Good Natur’d and Sprightly, Had an Inexhaustable Fund, of songs, Riddles, Irish Bulls, and Magazine Poetry; a Good Share of Vanity, but of the Inoffensive kind; for allowing him to say every Now and then, a few Pretty things of himself; he never Attempted in the Least to Overbear, Contradict or Controvert, any thing that you Advanced. In Taking Care of our Victuals he was also quite Afsiduous; had a compleate knowledge of Liquors, Sauces, and Seasonings; and in this Respect was as Serviceable to us as a French Cook. As a man of gallantry, Mifs Glyde became of Course the Prime Object of his Devoirs; and for Entertainment we were much Obliged to’em both.

With this Good Company we Set off, rode 20 miles, and breakfasted at Egham ; in which space we had a View of Windsor Castle about 2 miles distant; and Rode Close by the fine Piece of Water, and Chinese Bark, Belonging to the Duke of Cum




October 11

Salisbury and nothing offered upon the Road till the next day, when we dined at Salisbury & spent two hours there. The Cathedral is, or has been a Very Fine One; but now very much out of repair; The city perhaps as large as Leeds but Old and Decaying, the Houses wood, and Plaister, and most of’em as Bad as Ours in Crofs Parish. There are Rivulets of water thro’ most of the streets; and an Unpaved Turnpike Road through the

12 middle of the Large Ones, the Next Day we Dined at Blandford; the Prettiest little Town I saw upon the Western road. Having been Burnt down about 10 years before and Rebuilt to advantage, We lay the night at Dorchester, a small old County Town, with 3 or 4 pityfull Churches, and at a little Distance 2 Roman camps, one of ‘em very large.

13 The Next Morning to Bridport; where for the first Time in my Life I had a prospect of the Sea; being part of the Brittish Channel; the Awfull Boundary betwixt the two Hostile nations and the Liquid Field of many a Bloody Encounter. From Bridport we Walked above a Mile, down to the seaside and Back to Dinner. Thence to Axminster and pafsing over Charmouth Hills, had an Open, Extensive View of the Sea, from Portland, to Lyme, and Torbay. This day after having Pafsed thro’ the Counties of Surrey, Hants, Wilts, and Dorset, we entered Devonshire; which afforded



us a greater variety of prospects, than any I had seen,since I left Yorkshire; ??? Mountain Hills,Crowned with Verdant Woods,

14 interspersed with Vallies, Beautifully Inclosed, and Cultivated. the 14th from Axminster to Honiton, which is better built than the last 2 Towns, having been Purified in the Fire some few years ago: It was also Situated in a most Delightful valley; much more Beautifull, and Exhibiting a greater Variety, than that of Otley. And indeed the whole County, or as much as I saw in Riding 80 Miles therin, is very Resembling, and for Strong Contrast of Hills, and Vales rather Exceeding our West Riding; but nothing near so Populous.

From Honiton to Exeter, about 2 in the Afternoon; This City is perhaps 2/3ds Larger than Leeds, but not by far so well Built; What they Call the High Street, and Account the Best, Street being Entirely Built of Wood and Loam: with the Old fashioned, Jutting, angular Windows; many houses in the Other Streets are of Red Mud, mixed with Straw, and Thatched. There are above 20 Churches, but the most Woefull habitations for the Deity to Dwell in, that ever I saw.( words erased- possibly “in all of England.”) with Steeples (if one may call’em so) of a Rough kind of Stucco; very Low and not discernable, above the houses at a little distance. The Cathedral indeed, is a good gothic pile with 2 Broad Low Towers: and an Organ,the Largest Pipes of any in


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England, and as I thought a very Musical One.

The Minster Yard is also large; Elegantly laid out in Gravel Walks, and planted with Beautifull Rows of Elms; where in fair Weather, the Merchants Afsemble, and keep their Exchange: and in the Summer Evenings; the Gentlemen and Ladies compose a kind of Mall: at which season it must be a very greable and Inviting Place. There is another Publick Walk in some part of the City, which I did not See. Sir John Maudaunt came to Town the same day that we did; Lodged at the same Inn: and the next morning while I was taking the View of the City, from one of Minster Steeples, I had the Additional pleasure of seeing the Soldiers Perform their Evolutions, and Fire several Times, in a field Close adjoining to the Minster: Afterwards I walked down and with the remaining part of their Exercise,(it being very fine forenoon) I had also a luck opportunity of Viewing all the Belles of Exeter: for the ladies are always attracted by these Gallant Exhibitions of Pomp.

The Trade of this City is most of it Carried on thro’ the hands of the Londoners, or the Foreigners Settled at Exon: but is in

Oct 15 the whole very much declining. The next day after I had dispatched a Little Businefs, and received my Trunk of Cloathes I took it along with me in the Coach, and proceeding about noon, with Mr. Jones his Wife, Daughter, and another Lady.

16 Arrived at Plymouth in good Time the next Day.

17 The next Morning was so excefsive Rainy, that I could



not stir out till Eleven: when in Spite of the Rain I walked to look at the Garrison; where, with some New Works added by Sir John Ligonier the Present Governor, there are as above 150 Guns mounted, but only 200 Invalids in the Place. Another Regiment was soon Expected on Acct. Of the apparent Dangers of a Rupture with France.

Tis a delightfull Situation, and you have at Once a fine view of Mount Edgecombe Plymouth, Dock Town, and all the Shipping in theSound, Hamoare, and Catwater. After Dinner I walked with Mr.Rigby who, had taken Post immediately from Exeter, but on his arrival at Plymouth was told that the Saltash Sloop was then at Biddiford 70 or 80 Miles on the Opposite Coast of Devonshire: but by Accident he had got Entered as Surgeons Second mate on board the Oxford of 70 Guns.The ship a month or two after took the L’Esperance a French Man of War. We walked together to Dock Town, about a mile from Plym o , and almost as large: saw the Docks and Ordnance there; took boat & pafsed by the Buckingham Admiral West of 70 Guns, The York of 70, the Antelope of 50, several others of the same rate and went aboard the Oxford but at an unlucky opportunity; for they were then taking their powder on board, and did not suffer either Fire or Candle aboard the ship till that Dangerous Businefs finished: so that we could only look about a little on the Upper and quarter Decks, and the Captains Cabbin,and State Room.

In one of the Docks was the Magnamine, taken from the French the last war, they have been working at her more or less 8 years: and when finished she will be entirely




and as large as most of our First Rates. Higher up in the Homoare there were above 70 French prizes; and the Town was Crowded with French men, the Captains, and some others being allowed to walk about without Swords in the Day Time, and return to their Vefsels at Night: the Private Sailors Confined in Different parts of the Town, and Guarded by the Marines. It Continued to Rain Incefsantly, and we were most deplorably wet, but thank God no Bad Consequences followed.

The News Papers had mentioned a Convoy intended to sail for the Straits about the 16th if this had offered immediately, and I could have a Ship bound for Lisbon; I had Determined to Embark directly, and save the further journey by land to Falmouth. but upon Enquiry, no such Ships offering; It remained that I should Transport myself and Trunk to Falmouth, with as much Ease and Expedition, and as Little Expence as pofsible. But for this Purpose I was Obliged to have 3 horses; one for myself, another for my Trunk. and the 3d for a man to lead it. On the 18th about 11 We mounted

18. and Rode Thro’ Plymouth to the Pafsage at Crumhills, found the Boat on the other Side and the Wind, & Tide strong against them; and after we had waited 2 hours we were told that it would be improbable to pafs till Low water about 5 O Clock; as that would be very late, and if I tarried ‘till the next day, I might have then be liable to some hours delay. I resolved to return to Plymo and go 14 Miles Round over the first Bridge. But this required another Bargain and an



Additional expense of s 6/- so that I was obliged to pay ?3”2”0 for 3 Horses 74 miles; which with my own charges amounted to as much as the Coach, & Charges 172 Miles from London to Exeter. But I had no Remedy, the Cornish Roads being Remarkably Bad; the Horses Scarce; Post Chaise as not Set out by the Mile, but the Day: and in such Stony Roads Very Slow and Dangerous; and would have cost about s10/-more. About 2 we set off again, and rode 22

Oct 19 Miles that night to Kellington: Dined next Day at Lostwithiel a Small Borough Town, & Corporate; about as large as Tadcaster. I had the pleasure of seeing the Mayor walk from Church, attended by two Serjents; one bearing an Oar, and the Other a Mace of Silver. This Town was Once the Largest in the County; and besides being a Mart for the Tin Mines around it; has a small Manufactory of Serges. Thence to Truro, the Best and Largest Town I had then seen in Cornwall; and where the Tin Trade Chiefly Centers; with Blocks of which the Market place was always mostly Covered: They are brought thither to have their Quality proved, Once a quarter; when their Number amounts to near 3000: each worth about Eleven Pounds Sterling. The Yearly Value about ?132,000. The Blocks at Penzance, Lostwithiel, & Helstone, may amount to something more than the above Sum: so that the produce of the whole County in this Metal, may be valued in the Gross at ?27,000 pr Ann. Most of which Money I was informed is Carried over to France to purchase Wines, Brandy, Tea &ca

From Truro, thro’ Penryn, to Falmouth: and enquiring



Oct. 20 Immediately after the packett; had the Mortification to hear that One of them had Sailed 2 Days before: and that there was little probability of another Sailing in lefs than 14 days. I alighted at the Post Office; but finding by the Ordinary there that Day and the Next, that it would be very Expensive living there: and neither Agree with my Purse, Temper, or Constitution: I Enquired, and Immediately Met with Private Board and Lodgings at M r Henry Pye’s, an Honest Sensible Watchmaker, Free- Mason and Mathematician. Where I had a Large, Handsome Room, Bed, and Fire to myself; But Eat and Drank in Common with M r. And M rs. Pye for 16 pence a day, as long as I pleased. Accordingly I paid off my First two Quarters and Pitched my

21 Tent with M r. Pye, whose House (if 4 or 5 of his Youngest Children were but grown up fit to send to School) I should recommend to any Friend Pafsing that Way.

22 The Next Day I went to See the Prince Frederick; that being the Appelation they gave to the Bundle of Planks, whereon I was to Launch over to Lisbon: A Meer Cobweb Partition betwixt Time and Eternity. However in the Seamen’s phrase she was a fine Large Snow ( a brig -rigged vessel with supplementary mast carrying a trysail just abaft of the mainmast.) of 170 tons,; 10 Carriage Guns besides swivels; and 60 Stout Seamen: their Complement of Hands being lately doubled upon the apprehensions of a War with France. There are 4 of these Packetts upon the Lisbon Station: and they Generally Take Care to Leave One in the Harbour at Falm o . and another at Lisbon; to be ready against any Casual Emergencies of Government at Either Place, so that there are commonly two at Sea, and two in Harbour at the Same Time; and the Detention or Tedious



pafsage of one Packett, Delays the Sailing of the Others. And sometimes One of ’em is detained so long, that it Carries 3 or 4 Mails over. They have 3 post days in the Week at Falm o.. but only One Mail for Lisbon; which arrives every Saturday about Noon: but the packett very frequently does not sail till Wednesday, after the arrival of the Country post: and as their most Common Return is with 2 mails, they make about 26 trips in the Year. There is an agent for the packetts at each place who regulates their Sailing: that at Falm o.. generally by immediate Orders from the General Post Office at London: and that at Lisbon, from the English Envoy, Consul, or at the Request of the Factory.

These packetts in Time of War are Commanded to Speak with no Ships; whatever they are, or whatsoever Colours they carry. Because there is always a possibility that even an English Man of War, may by Chance of Fortune, have been taken, and them be Pofsefsed by the Enemy. So that if One of our own Ships happen to Chace them; they Run from her with all the Heels they have: and I was told an instance of a Packet ( by a person then on board) that was Chased by a Man of War they knew very well; She Continued her pursuit 2 or 3 Days; ‘till they came near the Rock of Scilly: The Captain of the packett, rather than bring to; depending upon his particular Acquaintance with those Rocks; Ran Directly in Among them, and Pafsing thro’ the Windings of their Dangerous Channells; the Man of War was Obliged to Desist after she had got near Enough to Fire several Shots thro’ their Rigging.


Numbers on pages in the Diary are henceforth missed off.

The town of Falm o.. Consists of One Long, Narrow street, Going along the Side or Rather the Foot of a steep Hill: which Confines the the Town so Closely that the Houses in many places do not Extend 50 Yds. And in none I believe much above 100 from the sea side. The Houses here as well as at Plymouth, Lostwithiel, and Truro; are mostly Sashed; but still make but a very Indifferent Appearance: Most of’em being Wood and plaister overlaid with a Blew or Blackish Slate, as thin as that the Boys have at the Accounting Schools; which in Pieces, about the Size of an 8vo or 12 mo Book is stuck upon the plaister with Small Pinns all the way up the House Side; and the Tops Slated with the Same. Others are built of Stones large and small; Round, Flat, or Square; stopped in just as they Came to hand: the Loam Uniting all in one Commom Mafs: looking worse than our Country barns, where all the Stones are Commonly Chosen, or prepared by the Masons, so as to make the Seams Run nearly Paralel and at Right Angles. The ladies of Falmouth seemed to be very Gay, showed themselves much, and Paraded, in parties along the Streets. At One End of the Town is a fine Grove Consisting of 4 Rows of Stately Elms; and Extending above 300 yards in Length. Here whenever the Weather is Tolerable, the Ladies and Gentlemen have their Afsignations,’Tis really a pleasant Walk, and ( they told me) very handsomely decorated on a Summer Sundays Evening after Tea. The Markets, and Concourse of People to the Town are very Small; the Packetts being its Principle Supports. Of these besides the 4 for Lisbon; there are 2 for Corunna, and in Time of War 2 for the West Indies: all of which Not withstanding Positive Prohibitions, and the Several Penalties, carry away Considerable Quantities of Goods: and the Manchester people have 2 Warehouses in the town



principle Dealings are with the People of the Packetts. The Harbour of Falm o is a very fine & Secure One; and Capable of recieving a Great Number of Ships. In Sailing out you have the Castle of Pendennis on the Right and St Mawe’s on the Left: this last is but a name: but Pendennis is of some Strength both from the Art, and its Natural Situation upon a High Rocky Peninsula; and has the Command of a very fine Sea Prospect: an enjoyment which was the Greater to me, as I was Entirely New. And as the weather was at this Time Extremely Mild and Pleasant; I Enjoyed it to the utmost Advantage, by Walking on the Forenoons among the Rocks, and upon the Hills adjoining to the Sea. Which in my Opinion affords as Noble, and Grand a Subject for Contemplation as any in Nature. A Rocky Coast and an Agitated Sea, present to the Eye a Mixed Scene of Horror and Admiration! Pafsions, which happily United Occupy every Facility of the Soul; and fill it with the Sublimset Conceptions of it is capable of.

The following paragraph has been struck through. Note the reference to the old view of the age of the earth, according to Usher.

(What imagination so Sluggish? Or What Mind so Sunk in Apathy, or Stagnancy of thought? As not to be roused into a Noble Tumult of Soul, Amidst the Loud Uproar, and Combined Rage of Elements ! The Bellowing Winds, and Foaming Billows; Dashing with Restlefs Fury, against the bases of the Wave- Worn Rocks: That stand unmoved, thro’ the long Series of 6000 Years; and still maintain the Roaring Conflict)

But ‘tis Time


Time to return from this Reverie, and take my Leave of Falmouth ; where I was detained so long, & had so much Time; that some of my Observations may have become rather Tedious, and Trifling.

Thursday The Day of Sailing at last Arrived; All was ready; my Host and I were just ordering a tankard of Negus for a Parting Cup; when the

Nov.r 6th Boat Appeared: Three Other Gentleman Pafsengers, were already Got in, and my Host and I were Obliged to shake Hands, and Content Ouselves with a Dry Parting. I seated myself Silently in the boat; and heard my fellow Pafsengers Adrefs each other, with Lord John, Sir Harry & ca. Titles which might be Either Real, or Afsumptive for ought I knew at that Time: they seemed to be Persons of some Figure as they had 3 Servants to Attend them. We got on Board, had a Prodigious Bustling, and Rattling Round us while they were weighing Anchor: the Ship soon got under Course, into the Road; and the Captain with another Gentleman pafsenger, there coming on Board: with the Hearty Concurrence of the Wind; We quickly Lost the Swift Receeding Shore, and I bid an anxious adieu to my Native Country.



The gale drove us 7 or 8 Knots (Miles) an Hour: I walked the Deck as long as I could: But the Motion was so Violent,that in lefs than 2 Hours I was Obliged to Retire into the Cabbin, Amongst the rest of my fellow Pafsengers; where as if it had been an Hospital: we lay very Submissively in our Cotts; supping nothing Chicken Broth; with which we were plentifully supplied,This continue about 3 Days; But after that Time, we most of us Got Up, and sustained a very Agreable Conversation; Intermixed with an Infinite Number of Little Histories, Anecdotes, and Characters of the Late, and present Nobility and Gentry in Court. and Country. Our Sovereign Capt. Henry Prole, had seen a Great Deal of the World; had

Characters in Served in the Last War as Lieutenant on Board the

the Capt- Namur, Admiral Matthews; and Told us, fired

tains Cabbin The First Gun in the Unsuccefsfull Engagement off Toulon; He had Travelled thro’ most parts of Italy, in some Secret Service for the Government: and was a man of Generosity, Taste, and Elegance; particularly so on Board his Ship; Where he had an Italion Cook,& Italian Footman: fresh provisions of all kinds;


All the Greens and Vegetables of the Season; and Variety of Wines in the Utmost Plenty. In Short I could only find One Fault in him, which I believe is Natural to his profefsion, as it is to many Others; viz too Great an Affectation of Mystery, and Reserve in his Art: Attended with a kind of Pride that forbid any of us asking a few Questions of Innocent Curiosity, relating to the Latitude or Longitude of the Ship, the Distance we had Sailed, or had to Sail & ca. I Had made some little practical Aquaintance with the Maps, previous to my Journey: But tho’ I observed there were several Sea Charts in the Cabbin, I Durst not Venture to open one of them for Fear of Disobliging Him: and all the other Pafsengers were obliged to observe the same Degree of Awfull Respect. The Other Pafsengers were Sir Archer Crofts Bart. Capt of a Troop in the Dragoon Guards, and lately Resigned. He had the year Before been 7 months at Lisbon upon Acct. Of his Health: and was now making Another Voyage in Hopes of Perfectly Reinstating himself: and indeed he did not seem to be much out of Order. He was quite Goodnatured, Free,Easy, and Unafsuming.

Mr. Henry Bird a young Gentleman from Coventry Who by his too Close Attachment to the Ladies, from 15 (as he told us) to within a few months past; xxxxxx xxx xxxlittle jxxxxxxxxxxxxx: was reduced to



very last Stage of a Consumption; and was now flying to Lisbon for his Life. He was not yet 21 and as his friends Expected but little from his own Conduct, they had recommended him to the Care of the Following Gentleman. George Lucy of Charlcot in Warwickshre Esqr. Lineal Heir of that Sr.Thos.Lucy; who by his severe Prosecution of Shakespear for stealing his Deer; drove him up to the Playhouse; from whence he afterwards Exhibited his Astonishing Talents to the World ; and his Play the Merry Wives of Windsor, took a Severe Revenge; by lampooning the said Sr.Thos & his son; under the Ficticious Character of Justice Shallow and ‘Squire Slender. This Mr.Lucy frankly told me in Conversation: and said he had often bespoke, and seen the play with pleasure; while he sat Incog. In a Snug Seat; to avoid the laugh, and Stare of the Audience. Three or four Months before, he had been brought very near to the Point of death by a Violent Bilious Cholic; from which he had received some little Relief at Bath. But the Air Of Portugal & the Waters of the Asaldas there, thought the Only Resource to Compleat his Cure. He had now but little use of his Hands, Arms, or Legs; but seemed to be very Sound at heart. He was a Goodnatured,



Sociable, Plain, Honest Country Gentleman: and Extremely patient, and Humble under his Disorder. His Estate was no less than ? 2800 P r Ann. He had along with him a Companion, Mr.John Dobson of New Colledge Oxford Coz. To the Latin Translator of Milton: and himself of all the People I ever Conversed with, the Best Sense, Learning, and Great good Nature: of which I may perhaps speak more largely hereafter; as I had the Pleasure of his Conversation at Lisbon, and Ascaldas, for above 3 4 Months.

But to proceed on Our Voyage: The First Night we pafsed thro’ a Squadron of 5 or 6 Very Large Ships; the Brest Fleet was said then to be at Sea; but these were Admiral Boscawen’s fleet returning from Nova Scotia as we learnt from the Nwspapers afterwards.

They were Steering directly up the Channel, in a very hard Gale: but (as we kept our Lights Carefully Concealed) probably never saw us. After these we only saw 3 More Ships in all our Voyage, One of them had lost her Main-Top-Mast. The First 3 Days we made a Great Advance: running 7, 8, & sometimes 9 Miles an Hour: but afterwards the Wind turned Contrary; and to avoid being Driven on the North coast of


Spain we were Obliged to Snug our Sails; Turn the Ship About, and (in The Seamans Phrase) Lay to; letting the Sea Tofs us about Just as it pleased: And this to us was the most Uncomfortable Night of all our Voyage: for while a ship is able to Carry any Sail; the Wind bears her up One Way against the waves, and keeps her Tolerably Steady: but in our present Situation we were Heaved, Tofsed, and Swilled about in Every Pofsible Direction: and the waves Frequently Dafhed over the Ship with such Violence: That the poor Wretches Stationed upon Deck, were obliged every now and then to Squat upon their Bellies with Just hold of a rope; to prevent being washed Overboard. One of these seas came Over us, with such Violence, that it Burst open the Steerage Windows; and pouring in put out all our Lights. And I believe at that Inst t every One of us Landsmen thought we were going to the Bottom. Tho’ I believe the Ship was never in any Danger; yet from the Concefsions of the Seamen themselves the first part of our Voyage was Realy very Rough & Severe; and to people that have never been at Sea before must Certainly appear frightfull, & Dangerous.


At our meals we were obliged to look very Sharp, to prevent the Elopement of our Plates,Knives,Forks &ca.It seemed as if we were Got into a Different World: where all the Utensiles round us were made of such Mercurial matter; that in Spite of all our vigilance; a Knife, a Glass, or a Bottle would take an opportunity and make a sudden trip, from the Table to the other Side of the Ship. And sometimes our Fairy Chairs would Slip from under us, and leave us sprawling upon the Floor. In Short, the wholesome Law of Gravitation, which keeps every thing Steady, and in Peace upon Terra Firma; seemed in this Little Sphere of ours to be Quite Suspended. We could not Keep our Legs in Subjection under us; nor Ballance our Heads upon our Shoulders: for as One of the Servants was Walking in the Cabbin, with a Lantern in his hand, Suddenly his Head was affected with such a Prodigous force of Gravity; or (I know not which ) so strong a Degree of Attraction: That he made his Transit with such Velocity from One side of the Ship to the Other; as frightened us all; least the Violence of the



Contact should have sprung started a plank. And been Attended with the most Dangerous Consequences

Nov: 10 On Monday the 10 th. We had the first Sight of Land; Being Cape Ortegal, on the North Coast of Spain; Considerably East of our Proper Course: and as the Wind was Still Contrary, the Capt. was doubtfull wheather he could Weather the Cape; or must be Obliged to put into the Groyn. However he attempted the first, and Steering for some Time full West; and then Southerly.

11 The Next day we had Cape Finisterre to the East of us: and Proceeded forwards but very Slowly.

15 However at Daylight on Saturday the 15 th. We found Ourselves Close to Cape Roxent, commonly Called the Rock of Lisbon; and but 15 Miles from the City. We were all in High Spirits; Shaving, & Cleaning ourselves: for tho’ we had lived very Elegantly as to meal, and Drink; Dressing had been the least of our Care. The Captain Came & Told us, we should now have a fine Prospect as any in the World; the Sun as if to Contribute to it, Rose upon us Warm, but Mild; and a finer English May-Morn


I never Saw: We Continued advancing Slowly up the River almost full of Shipping: and had Already a Distant prospect of the City; But
When we were Arrived within 4 Miles, a Pilot from a Fishing Vefsell Came aboard us, and with every Gesticulation of Horror, and melancholy, Told us that Lisbon had been first Shook Down
by an Earth quake; and afterwards Consumed by Fire! The Relation
had well Nigh turned us all to Statues: and after we had stood Aghast for some Time We Turned towards the City but could not
discern much
of the Ruins ‘till the Captain brought up his Long
Glafs; with which we could discover the Castle & a few other
Large Buildings fallen Down: but the Center of the City lay Concealed behind a Hill. As ours was the First Packett that Arrived after the Misfortune; Before we Could come to Anchor our Deck was Immediately Crouded with the Merchants of the Factory: Every One Ready Tell a melancholy Tale of the General Lofs; and his Own Miraculous Escape. Many of those Gentlemen who but a Fortnight Before, in Opulence and Splendour almost Died with Princes; Now wanted One of them a Pair of Shoes, Another a Hat, Wig, or Meer Necefsary



Dress: for the Shock Happening in the Forenoon; when the Merchants and their Clerks were all in Dishabille in their Counting Houses; with Only, Slippers, Night Caps, and thin Waistcoats according to the Custom of the Country. In this Condition they Fled; and as they Could Got aboard the Ships In the River; Where for many Days they lay Stowed as Close as they could Breath; Destitute of every Hope, but the preservation of their Lives.The first Shock ofThis Dreadfull Catastrophe happened a little Before 10 in the forenoon of Nov r 1st . Being the Feast all Saints; the Celebration of Which Festival for The Catholick with large Wax Tapers upon the Altars; and Numerous Lamps hanging before them: Contributed not a little to the Burning of the City. and the greater Destruction of the Inhabitants. For all the Churches being Open and Full; upon Account of the Festival, and the people Running to them, at the First Shock; some thro’ Piety, as most Immediate Accefs to Heaven: and others for Safety, as thinking them of Greater Strength than the Houses: Those Holy Places being so many large, High, Hollow Shells: Standing upon Pillars, and Arches; more able indeed to bear



A weight pressing Directly downwards: but not being bound together like the Houses with Crofs Walls, Beams, and Floors; much more Easily thrown down Sideways. Consequently the Shock had a greater effect upon them; and very Few were left Standing in the City. But Tumbling to the Ground the Unhappy Creatures within; were all Crushed to Death with the Fall; and afterwards Consumed to Ashes by the Fire. Which beginning at the Tapestry, and other Materials falling upon the Lamps, and by Degrees breaking out, and Catching Hold of the Houses; in a few Hours the City was in Flames thro’ Every Quarter; and the Gloom of Night Succeeding; The Fire Triumphed, in all its Glare of Terrified Horrors! & nothing was Wanting to Render the Whole, the most Complicated Scene of Terror & Desolation that Could Affect the Human Mind. Can One Concieve a Situation more Distrefsfull than that of those Unhappy Fugitives? Persons of the same Family, Amidst the Danger, and Confusion of the Falling Houses, Seperated, and Dispersed Distant from Each Other; The Husband from the Wife; and the Parent from the Child; Equally Uncertain whether they Dead



or Alive: and During that Suspense, Sufferimg much more for Each Other; than they Could have done by a final Separation in the Common Course of Nature. In this Manner, Scattered in the Fields, and upon the Hills, they Spent the Night; the Horrors of the Day still Recent upon their Minds, and Before their Eyes, the Dreadfull Spectacle of a Royal City in Flames! Each Melancholy Fugitive, Turning a Desponding Eye, Towards that Peculiar Spot, where he had formerly Enjoyed so many Hours of Social Peace, and Sweet Domestick Blifs! And where now All his Property, ( perhaps the produce of a Long Life of Cares and Labours,) was left Behind; Abandoned to the Mercilefs Fury, of the Devouring Fire. I shall not Enter into a longer Detail of Melancholy Circumstances, which are in General but too Well Known by all the Commercial World: As one of the Severest Strokes that Trade has Received for Some Ages.

I made all the Enquiry I could of the Gentleman that Came aboard us after M. Vifscher, the Gentleman I was Recommended to; and who was to furnish me with the One Thing Needfull: But Except his being Alive I could



hear nothing of Certainty about him; Some of ‘em told me he was gone to Oporto, which not a little Alarmed me ; as I was without Money, in a Strange Place, & at Such Time of Publick Calamity, and Confusion, might be Reduced to Distrefs. I next Enquired after my Townsmen Carett & Lupton, and wrote Letters (as I had done to Mr. Vifscher) to devise to speak with Them On Board the Packett where I lay the first Night. The Next Morning being a Sunday, & having heard that there would be Service at the Envoys Chappel, Mr.Dobson and I went on Shore In Hopes of Meeting Some of Our Aquaintances there. The Very Instant of our Landing, We fell in with Several Procefsions; and a Train of Priests, Pictures,& Crucifixes, which Continued for near a Mile. As we had heard such frightfull Tales of the Blind Zeal, and Bigottry of the Portuguese; which it was Natural to Suppose would be Raised at Such a Time as to its Highest Pitch of Fanaticism Fervour, and Frenzy; There Was also a Row of Soldiers Placed all the Way, on Each Side of the Street; which gave it a Still greater appearance of Terror to two poor Hereticks; and my Friend & I Sneaked Along, Bareheaded; and almost frightened at Every Priest or Soldier that Looked at us; for fear the Sight, or Smell of a Heretick should Offend a Priest,


or Subject of his Most Faithfull Majesty. However I believe the Danger was mostly in our own Apprehensions, for we Arrived Safe at The Envoy’s Chappell but found none of our Friends There. As we were returning we Met with M r.Morgan ( partner to Carrett & Lupton) who had received One of my Letters and had been on board to Enquire after me. As my Dress was better than most that Could be seen at that time,& denoted me a Stranger, he Asked my Name & we Came Immediately to an Explanation. His Partner he Told me were both at Sacavem; a village about 6 Miles off, whither he was going, and where they Could Accomodate me with half a Bed for the Night. Accordingly I went Along with him, and we found Carrett & Lupton in a kind of Huckster’s Shop, where they had Got a Few Bays, Shalloons &ca. And were then Trafficking with a Couple of Priests for a Few Necefsaries. From thence we went to their Lodgings; they formed a Community; and Eat and Slept All together in a Large Long, Ground Floor, that had been a Wine Vault, but was now converted to a Nobler Purpose with a Row of Beds on Each Side; The Women lying on One Side, and the Men on the Other; and preserving Decencies as well as Circumstances would permit.



They were all Either English or Irish; extremely Social, and after a Very Decent Supper, and a little familiar Conversation with my Townsmen, I had a very sound Repose. The Next Morning all the 3 partners walked with me to Lisbon; where I took up my Quarters at Morleys, an English House about half a Mile from Lisbon. As this House had Suffered very Little; it was Crouded wlth English Merchants ,Clerks &ca. whose houses had been destroyed: and besides these, in the Cock Pit, Outhousing & Garden there were 223 Irish Men, Women,& Children; all Maintained at the Charge of the Factory ‘till they could be Shipped off for their own Country. All this at such a Juncture must of Course make Expences Run High; and I paid 27 s/- for my Meat, and 9 s /- for a small Room that held just a Truckle Bed and a chair. this with Expence of Washing Made my Ordinary Weekly Expence Amount to about ?1”17”6.

After I had been 3 Days at Morleys, Mr. Vifscher came to me; He had lost Everything, Even the Clothes upon his Back, Bad as they were, were Borrowed of 2 or 3 people. But he Hoped he had Credit Enough to Supply me with any Money I might Want. Upon mentioning my Intention of Going to Oporto, he told me his Partner Mr.David Garnault was going thither in 8 or 10 Days.

And I desired that Mr.Garnault would make some provision for my Journey, at the same Time with his own, as I was a Stranger, and he Aquainted with the Language, People,& Manners of the Country.

This Journey However by Mr.Garnault’s Delaying fromTime, to Time; did not Take Place ’till the 28th of December: so that I lost 3 or 4 Weeks to little or no Purpose; Unlefs becoming Aquainted with Several of the Merchants, Clerks &ca which might perhaps be of some Service on my Return. This Lofs of Time was the More Difsagreeable from the frequent Shocks which we felt almost Every Day; Many of them were Small, but on Thursday the 11th of December about 5 in the Morning we had a frightfull One, which by those that had felt them all, was said to be more violent than Any; excepting the first Fatal Day. I was Immediately Awakened with a Strange, Hollow, Rumbling Noise; and feeling the Bed and Room Tottering violently Under me, and the Walls Crackling behind me; I Started out of Bed; heard the people of the House Running down Stairs. But Durst not follow: for as the House was Still shaking, I thought it must Certainly be upon my Head long before I could Get down 2 pair of Stairs. As therefore all retreat


-------------------------------------------------------------- Seemed Impracticable, I had nothing left but Resignation, and a patient Expectation of what I could not avoid; I Ran under the Doorstead of my Chamber, and stood Shivering in such a Situation as I hope I shall Never Experience again; However all at Last stood Still: the Tremulation Continued I believe about 15 Seconds, which seemed very long I assure you in such a DubiousCrisis, where Life and Death were Immediately Depending.

Three Strong Props had been put to the House only the Day before, in Compliance with our prefsing Solicitations; and to this Happy Precaution, we may perhaps Owe the Preservation of our Lives. But however Mr. Dobson, Mr.Bird and I, determined not to lye in the House any More, but at Night retire into a small Baracca in the Garden, and there I slept Securely and Soundly till my Departure for Porto. If my time at Lisbon Could have been Spent more Profitably, and Agreably Securely; it would have been very Agreable, for the Gentlemen who came Over with me, not being able to take a House for Themselves, were Obliged all (Except Sir Archer Crofts) to come to Morleys. And as my Small Room was adjoining theirs, I Mefsed with them all the


Time I Staid at Lisbon, without being at the least Additional Expense upon that Account. Mr. Vifscher also took a Small Room Contiguous, so that in the Evenings we were a Very Agreable, Private Society of 5 Persons all under the Age of 40. And when Conversation was exhausted, or grew languid, we played at Cards; but for very small Sums.

Before I Departed from Lisbon to Porto, I pafsed Several Times in Company with Mr.Dobson, thro’ the Ruins of the City, in Order to form as Compleat, and Adequate an Idea as Pofsible of so Uncommon a Scene. Than which One Conceive Nothing more Melancholy; Mountains of Rubbish to Climb over, and Impending Walls, that threatened as we Pafsed: Remains of Broken Coaches. Chaises & Carcafses of Beasts not Quite Covered in the Rubbish. Roofless Churches, with all their Pompous Fragments of Glittering Altars, Maimed Images, and Shattered Pictures. In the very Center of the City, a Space about twice as Large as Leeds, formerly Close Built Streets, Now absolutely Nothing, but one rude Confused Scene of Broken Ruins, and Solitary Walls Blackened O’er with Smoke! Without any sign of Inhabitant, Except here



and There, A poor Sufferer, sifting and Scratching among the Ashes of this Ruined Fortune, in hopes of finding a few pieces of Gold; ar Recovering a lost Diamond: Or perhaps a Curious Pafsenger, with Speculative Eye, and Countenance of Mute Astonishment, Deeply Revolving, upon the awfull, and Mysterious Ways of God to Man. The Outer Parks, and Suburbs were Indeed most of ’em Standing; Propped up Acrofs from House to House and Still Inhabited by such People as not able to build themselves Barracas, or Huts of Deal; But so Miserably Shattered, that nothing but the last necefsity could Compell a person to Risque his life for a Single Night.

At some little Distance; then whole had the aspect of a City that had endured a terrible Siege, and Bombardment: which however could never have done half the Mischief that the Earthquake and Fire did: and what gave it a Still greater appearance of Hostility, Most of the Troops had been sent for from the Frontiers, and were then Encamped upon the Hills adjoining to the City. The House of Mr.Joseph Morley where I Lodged is a pleasant Situation, near the Conventa da Estrella; about a Quarter of a Mile from Lisbon in a small Street, with no better a name than Rua dos Ladrenes,


or The Street of Thieves. Consisting only of One Row of Houses, and Open to the Fields an both Sides. From our Common Dining Room which was now in the 3rd. Story, we had a prospect of Great Part of Lisbon; the Castle, A Camp of Soldiers, & adjacent Hills; on the Other Part of the River Tajo, with the Shipping therein, and a Distant View of the Mountains of Atlantejo, on the Opposite shore Extending above 20 Miles. Close Adjoining to Morleys is the English Burying Ground, Rather more than the Content of an Acre, Planted with Rows of Cyprefs; and against the walls, with which it is Inclosed, Vines, Rose trees, and other flowering Shrubs: There are a few Mafsy, Monumental Urns, and Vases of White Marble with Latin & English Inscriptions in Verse and Prose, but some of them so Excrably Bad, that ‘tis a pity they should Stand a Monumental reproach to the English language and Genius.

They are all of them since the year 1740. And 2 of the most Eminence buried there are Henry Fielding Esqr.and Dr. Doddridge,this last has Only a Plain,Upright Stone with this Inscription.

Under this Stone are Deposited,

The Remains of Philip Doddridge DD.



Of the Town of Northampton,

In the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Who Departed this Life the !6th day of Novr. 1751.

In the 59th Year of his Age.

Fielding as yet Enjoys a Wish of Papes’ ‘And not a Stone,Tells where he lies’. He was a few Weeks at Morley’s but Removed to Belem, 10 or 12 Days before he died; I made what Enquiry I could after him, and his Behaviour at Lisbon; but could hear little more than that he was a Great Epicure, very poor, proud & peevish, and what was worst of all, did not behave so well to his Wife as he Speaks of her in his Journal. Indeed I had this chiefly from Morley and his Wife, with whom Fielding did not parted on very Good Terms, For they wanted Money of him, and I believe he neither gave them that, nor good Words. I believe poverty was as troublesome to him as his Dropsy; for he had brought a family over with him to a very Expensive Place, and wanted the One thing Needfull.


My Friend Garnault after many Delays having at Last positively fixed our Departure for the 28th and procured a pafs from the Duke de la Foens,including all our names. I had provided for me, a Boiled Ham & 6 Roasted Fowls; things very necefsary & Usefull for such a Journey in Portugal, they generally take Wine along with them, but this we omitted. I had agreed for a strong Macho, & the Owner to attend me, & take Care of his Beast for 6 Millreis; I bearing the Expenses thither.

Excepting the Nobility,Gentry, & Oficers of the Army, the Portugese travel with very Little Ceremony, few of them being too proud to carry their own Provander, either Before, or Behind them; this was a Fashion I could very Conveniently Come into, and besides my Leather Portmanteau, with Linnen & a few other necefsaries; I had the Ham & Fowls also tucked up in a Sack behind me.

Besides Mr.Garnault and Myself we had the Company of Senhor (M r) Bernado Francisco de Pimento, an Inhabitant of Oporto; and Senhor Juan Fernandez de Lima lately returned from Brazils, and going to his Relations a Little Beyond that City: One of them had a Mulatier which with mine, and a Black of M rGarnault’s composed a strong Caravan 4 on Horse back and 3 on Foot. As to languages M r Garnault spoke English Tolerably; and Scipio his Black a little:



All the other Tongues were Portugese, to which I was an utter stranger; having Conversed with none but English hitherto. The Portugese are in General very Great Talkers; Our Companions were both, Young, Very merry Fellows, and many a Good Portuguese Jest pafsed upon the Road (which I could not understand. I should have been very Glad to have Contributed a little, if my friend Garnault would have taken a Proper method of first Explaining what was said to me; and then Teaching me the Ans r.. I would have made, in the Portuguese. But without being at so much Trouble, he Insisted I should speak Portuguese by Intuition, and off Hand, when anything was said to me, and if I asked him what it Meant, he Would repeat the whole Sentence Loudly in Portuguese and without Explaining a Single Word, Expect an Answer from me in the Same Language, and be not a little out of Humour with me for not Complying. His Obstinacy, and Stupidity in this point made us but Indifferent Company upon the Road; and Because I would not ( as he termed it) speak to him in Portuguse, he would Scarce speak to me in English.

In any CircumstancesI believe he would have been but a Very Indifferent Companion; He Had been at Lisbon near 30 Years; most of that Time,(as well as


he had been as Bookkeeper to Mefsrs .Haicks; and from morn to Night Close Confined to the Drudgery of a Counting House, or the Lower Drudgery of Trucking in a Warehouse of Baccalho (Codfish) with the Portuguese; to whose Tempers and Dispositions he was by Nature so Well Adapted, that he was generally taken for one. He was indeed what we Call in Trade, a very Cunning Shrewd Fellow; Could perhaps tell you off hand the Current Price of every Commodity in Lisbon, and all his Observations, & Enquiries tended to that Point: In Everything Else he was Perfectly Illiterate, had not the least Grain of Curiosity: and told me that since his first Coming to Lisbon he had never been above 3 Leagues from it before. This was so great a Misfortune to me, that it was with Difficulty I could get him to enquire the Names of the places we Pafsed thro’; and their Distances from each other: As soon as we came to a Stallage, he was Immediately Engaged in Conversation with the People Enquiring what was to be ought, or what might be sold there, or else Telling them a Dismal Canterbury Tale of the Earthquake at Lisbon, and his Own Escape which was repeated at every Stallage we Came to. In these Situations all that I had to Amuse myself



Myself with was a Silent Contemplation of the scene, and Strange Groups of Figures with which we were generally Surrounded. In this I was not a little Entertained, but it I had Pofsefsed but a Small pittance of Hogarth’s Genius I should have been Exquisitely happy.

Dec r 28 th We set Forwards about 1/2 past 8 on the 28 th Dec r . and pafsed thro’ the Villages of Sacavem, Povos, & Alberca 5 leagues to Alhandra; where we Alighted at a Stallage, to give ourselves and our Beasts a Refreshment: but not willing to begin so soon with our own Provisions, we took what the House afforded; Soupes,& Boulli. Soupes is no other than a Mixture of Greens and Bread, made into a Brouii, with the Soup of Beef boiled to Rags; which Beef is Brought up for a Second Course, and called Bouilli. From Alhandra, we set off again, thro’ Villa Franca, another Povos, Castaneira, & Villa Nova, to Azambuja; where we did not Arrive till 8.O clock. We Supped on Boiled Fish, and one of our own Fowls. After Supper I had a little Leisure to take a Survey of a Portuguese Inn, or Stallage; as they are Called with much More Propriety: for there is Commonly Stable room for 20 or 30 Horses, who with Barley or Indian Corn; and chopped straw, are much Better


Accomodated than their Masters. There is no such thing as Hay in the Country; But those Beasts that are kept for Show as well as use, and High fed; have Green Corn given them; Commonly Rye, which in many places as we pafsed, was grown up imto ear, and Cutting for that Purpose. These Stallages are mostly kept by the Smiths, you Ride directly into the House, the first Room whereof is a kind of Anti Stable; afterwards you are shown upstairs into a room where there is no other furniture but a long Table, and a Bench; or perhaps a Couple of Chairs. We had however always a Table Cloth; every One a Napkin, and a Fork; and most of the Stallages, afforded us a Single knife; which we were obliged to put about as we did the Glafs; But we were not very Curious in Carving; Indeed it is a Science entirely Unknown in Portugal, where many of them never use knives, but Pull what they have to Eat, in pieces with their Hands: As I was Credibly informed, Don Antonio, Unkle to the present King always does. For Drink we had always Good Water, and a Small Sharp Red Wine, which they call Vinho Verde, or Green Wine, because it is drawn from these Vines of which they form their Lattice Walks, & Shades, suffering them to grow into a Luxuriance of Branches; which takes away the Strength and Spirit of the Grape; this wine, is the Common Beverage of the Por



and is sold for a Vintem a Quart; about 1 d 1/3 English.

We had for the most part also a very good White Bread.

Soon after Supper, the Valet de Chambre, who has often neither Stockings nor Shoes, Comes, and Spreads upon the Floor as many Beds as there are Persons; The Ticks, and Pillows sometimes filled with Wooll, and sometimes with Straw. We always kept our Stockings, Breeches, and Waistcoats on; had a Lamp burning all the Night, and Slept much more Comfortably than we Expected. If the Weather had been Warmer, we should have been more Infested with small Vermin; but with these Gentry we had Continued some Degree of Intimacy by Lying in the Baracca at Lisbon. The Servants all Lie in the Stables among the Straw.

Monday 29 th From Azambuja the 29 th at 6, the Morning very Mild to Cartaxes 3 Leagues; Breakfasted on our own Ham & Fowls, and forward 2 Leagues to Santarem: where after Dining upon our own Store, Fried Fish, and Orange CheeseCakes; we had an Elegant Desert of Marmalett of Quince, Oranges, and Dried Grapes. Santarem is a City [only some 55 miles from Lisbon!] , or double Town; One Part of it Low, Dirty, and Close Built, by the Side of the River Tajo; the other a Pleasant Airy Level upon the Tojo


of a Steep Hill; In a kind of Open Squares, Well Built, but Irregular; covering a large Space of Ground, but great part of it Taken up with 10 or 12 Large Churches & Convents; ‘tis a Delightfull Situation as you approach from Porto. Fernande, one of the Kings of Portugal was Buried in the Convent of S t .Francisco in Santarem in the year 1383. The Portuguese Leagues are 4 English measured Miles; and in these 56 Miles from Lisbon, almost One Continued Level upon the Banks of the Tajo; we pafsed thro’ 10 or 12 Villages, or rather Towns; for many of ‘em were built, and Larger than Hunslet, and a Melancholy sight they were; for the Greatest Part of em lay in Miserable Ruins. Santarem had also suffered a Good Deal, but farther North the Effects were Scarce Perceptible. From Santarem at 2 to Gulgaom 4 Leagues at 7. Our Supper, Ham, and Fowls; Boiled Fish, Oranges, Pears, and Wallnuts: after Supper my Friend Davy and the Two Portuguese were Engaged in an Amorous Adventure ‘till almost 12 O’ Clock; but the Next Day when I Rallied him upon it, he took a Great Deal of Serious Pains to Persuade me that he had no Concern: for which I could not help Despising him; for the Circumstances were so Glaring that there was no Need of Language to Understand



From Gulaõ the 30 th Rode 2 Leagues, and Breakfasted at a Single House, on Ripe Olives, Hog’s Puddings (much too fat, and Strong for me) One of our own Fowls warmed with Hogs lard, & Onions, & Vinegar foe Sauce. Hence to Prufsia 3 Leagues; dined on Soupes & Bouille; a Fricafsied Fowl, Egg Pancake, Raisins and Wallnuts. As I have now mentioned all the Delicacies and Varieties we met with upon the Road; to avoid a Charge of Epicurism, I shall dwell no longer upon them. From Prufsia 1/2 past 4 to Afsiong 3 Leagues. Hitherto the Roads had been very Good, for the Most Part Sandy; and the face of the Country Pleasantly enough Varied with Groves of Olives, planted in Rows at Wide Distances, Pine Trees in Clumps upon the Eminences, and Round the Villages Orchards of Oranges & lemons even at this season bending with their Golden Fruit, the whole much Exceeded my Expectation. But the Next Day the Road was so Excefsive Mountainous, Rough and Craggy; that sometimes we did not Advance 2 Miles an Hour. From Afsiong the 31 st. at 6. In a severe frosty Morning, all the Pools covered with Ice, and our fingers almost Frozen off: to Revousal 2 Leagues at 10. Departed again



at 11 and Reached Coimbra 4 Leagues at 4.

After we had put up our Horses at the Stallage, M r.Garnault and I’ went to M r. Nash’s an English Mercht. To whom I had letters of Recommendation from Lisbon. He would have had us taken up up our Lodgings with Him, but as M r.Garnault did not Care to Leave his Portuguese Friends; we drank Tea, Supped, and sat there ‘till 9 O Clock, and then returned, and Lodged at the Stallage with our Companions. Altho Coimbra is Reputed the 4 th.City of the Kingdom, this Stallage was I believe the Only One There, and worse than Any we had upon the Road.

As we should take this City in our Return, we did not Tarry to look about us; but after dining the next day with M r. Nash and promising to make his house our Home as we Came Back, we prosecuted our journey 3 Leagues further and Lodged Jan.ry the 1 st. at Meilada: by far the best Stallage we found betwixt Lisbon & Porto. Thence the 2 d, to Abelaam Two Leagues to Breakfast; Dined at Albergaria Velha 4 Leagues more and Lodged at Pinheiro 2 leagues.

Departed thence the 3 d. To S t. Antonio 2 Leagues.; & then Stretching 5 Further without Baiting, we arrived at the River Douro, and ferried over to Porto about 3 in the


The text becomes much tidier and more carefully written, and with more line spacing in all the subsequent pages.

In the Afternoon; As we were advancing thro’ the City we were met by Senhor Manoel Duarte e Silva, a Considerable Correspondent of M r.Garnaults, who had known of our Coming and stopping us at his own Door insisted that we (Garnault & I) should take up our Lodgings with him, As the demand was no very Unreasonable One , we thought it Prudent to Comply with it: And Accordingly Alighting, we were shown up One pair of Stairs into a good Street Room where there were two Handsom Beds and a Beauroe at our Service: the Beds had fine white fringed Curtains; & Broad laced Pillows tied with Ribbons as if intended for a lying in Wife; the whole had a very Decent Appearance: and the living in a Portuguese family for a few Weeks was like to be a Curious Novelty. Our Host and his Wife Senhora Rosa, seemed both of them to be about the age of Thirty: and had only one Child, a Girl About 5 Years old: Senhora Rosa’s Brother a Jerono



Friar whose Convent was at some distance, was now with them for a few Weeks, upon a visit; and seemed to be aCivil, Goodnatured down right honest Fellow, I say seemed because most of what pafsed with me in theFamily was of the Pantomimick Kind.

Senhor Manoel had not the AppearAnce of a Portuguese; had a decent Counting house, & had a German book keeper & seemed to Conduct Businefs very regularly. The Lower Rooms were Chiefly Warehouses for Flax, Baccalha(Codfish) Corn & other Articles in the management wherof his Wife Constantly Attended; frequently came up into the Counting house to look over thr letters Written & sometimes Wrote them herself Mr.Garnault, myself, Senr.Manoel, Senr Padre (so they Call their friars) the Book keeper & little Rosa drank Tea Regularly Twice a day Senra Rosa seldom or never, perhaps thro’ dislike.


For the most part we dined out; Wednesdays, frydays & Saturdays being fast days there was in Common, only Fish, Eggs,& Greens, tho’ even upon those dates when they knew of our dining at home, they were so Complaisant as to provide a Roast Fowl for us, the worst of which was we none of us Knew how to difsect it; for tho’ upon the extra Occasions they may have a Profusion of Meat they are absoulutely unacquainted with all the decencies of the Table. When we had 3 or 4 Sorts of Fish. Boiled, Broiled & fried. Only One Dish appeared at Once & when that had its Run, our Host or Hostess would Ring with their Knife upon their plate, & then in Come Another, but this Sucefsion was so Slow, that the Dinner was sometimes Prolonged to an Hour & a Half Exclusive of the Bottles & Glafses.


The Portuguese pretend that the City of Porto was founded by the Celtick Gauls 236 Years before Christ; and it is without doubt a Place of Great Antiquity; and contains at present Eleven Convents of Different Orders: Its sumptuous Cathedral was founded by the Conde Henrique, Duke of Burgundy, who Marrying a Daughter of Alphonso VI King of Leom had with her in Dowry the Province of Lusitania; and great numbers of his Countrymen Settling with him intermarried with the Inhabitants of the City and Porto, and the Province; and from this Coalition the Kingdom first obtained the name of Portugal: and the Language most of those Terminations, and difference of Pronunciation which distinguish it from the Spanish. This Conde, or Count Henrique is Accounted their first Sovereign, tho’ he had only the Title of Count;


and the Southern part of the Kingdom was still Pofsefsed by the Moors, But his Son King Alphonso the I took Lisbon from them in the year 1147.

Oporto is a very Pleasant City, Situate upon a High Rockt Hill on the North Bank of the River Douro about 2 Miles from the Sea; the Barr or Entrance into the River is in some parts of the year very dangerous; and while I was there there came Ships from Spihead in 8 or 9 Days, which were afterwards obliged to Wait 3 Weeks within sight of the City without being able to set a Pafsenger on Shore. The City is I think Considerably larger than York, and with Villa Nova a Considerable Suburb on the Opposite Bank of the Douro is supposed to Contain about 24000 Souls. The Streets are Wider, and the Churches and Convents in general more Elegantly built


than those of Lisbon, If I could Judge from the Condition I found Lisbon in. And as there is nothing of the Bustle of a Court I should prefer it much for a place of Residence: Some of the Churches are Excefsive Rich, particularly that of St Francisco; and the Cathedral which is situate upon an Abrupt Hill, and overlooks the whole City; it has two Towers, that terminate in small domes: within it is nothing but a universal glare of Gilding Painting and Carving: and under every Arch a Shrine with an Holy Image, and a Silver Lamp burning before it, with such a Profusion of Velvet, gold fringes. Artificial Flowers &ca. As almost Sinfeit [ I cannot interpret this word] the Eye to look at them; For in the adorning their Churches they are so profusely Extravagant that the smallest chappel in a Country Village will have one at least of these shrines or Altars, decorated with Gilded, Wreathed Columns; flowers


Mofses, Shells, little Puppets, and every trifling Bauble, that the most Vitiated Fantastick taste can Invent: And the Priest at Mafs with all his holy Trinkets about him, looks like a Juggler, changing posture every moment with Bows, half Bows and little motions with his hands and fingers: turning now to the Altar, and then to the People, but mostly with his Back towards them, and mutterimg to himself as if he was performing some Incantation like a Witch in a play.

The English Merchants of which there are about 30 at Oporto live together in the Rua Nova (new street) which is the widest and best built of any in the City. they have a Consul,& Chaplain, but are only allowed Service in their own houses, every family in their turn where all that come to Service dine for that Day. The Principle dependance of the Place is the Exportation of


Wines which at this time amounted to about 17000 pipes pr Ann, and about 8 or 10 Years ago Exceeded 25,000. The English Factory is at ?2000 pr Annum Expence in maintaining their own Poor, decayed Merchants &ca which in Consequence of an Act of Parliament is raised by a charge of 15 PrT [abbreviation illegible] upon all the Freights

The Woollen Trade is at present Two Thirds of it in the hands of the Portuguese Shopkeepers, who order their goods directly from England; but if the War break out it will throw things again into the hands of the Strangers: the Portuguese not having Capital large enough to Run any Risque. I was so much pleased with the people & the Place that I shall say a little more in its favour; for tho’ the ground on both sides the River and all Round the City is little else but steep Rocks,& Craggy Slopes, yet such is the Power of Commerce,


Wealth, and Industry, that all the People of Figure have their Quintas, or country houses and Gardens round the City; but Chiefly by the River side. To everyone of these Quintas there is commonly by 2,3,or 4 Acres of Ground thrown into slopes one below another, as well as the declivity of the Hill will permitt; and planted with a vast Variety of Orange,Lemon, & Citrontres that Bend with fruit all the year round; besides these they have most of our fruits, and flowers of various kinds; and my residence among them was in January, their Tables were then furnished with radishes, Turnips,Carrots, and Colliflwers, in the greatest Perfection. The Best of these Summer Retirements are in the Pofsefsion of the Strangers, English Dutch, and Hamburghese; who spare no Expence in rendering them as Convenient and Agre


able as pofsible, with Grottoes, fountains, Cool baths, and shady Walks Covered with Luxuriant Vines. I dined or supped almost everyday with one or other of the English Merchants; was at one of their concerts and heard an Italian Lady sing most Enchantingly; she Arrived at Lisbon a little before the Earthquake to Perform at the Famous Opera house there; but in the general Calamity lost most of her Cloaths, and fled to Porto, where the Merchants raised a Subscription for her Support till she could have a pafsage for London or Paris. I was invited to go, and not Allowed to pay anything, as it is their Custom to Strangers who do not tarry long at the place. Signiora was a fine Tall Genteel Person, and dressed to advantage in a Cherry Coloured Sattin, with a kind of Mantle or short Cloak of the same Colour: No Cap, but her hair braided up & decorated with flowers, feathers & glittering Stones.

-------------------------------------------------------------- I was one evening invited to sup with a Portuguese one Senhor Jose Carnero a Relation of our Host Senr Manoel. We went about7, found a large room full of People; 4 of ‘em Women, young but Married: 2 Violins, a German flute & a Guittar: the men and Women danced Minuets; and two men who seemed to hired on Purpose, entertained us with a great Variety of Antick Jumping Dances.I was much Prefsed to Dance, and a person is under great difficulties that has no Language to make a Civil Excuse: and I told my friend Garnault that I had never learned, or ever danced in my life, yet he was so bent upon bringing me into the diversion that he would make no Excuse for me: however I came off this time, but it was only to fall into a worse Misfortune afterwards. After supper the Gentlemen were seated in a Row of Chairs Acrofs


the Room; and the Ladies (who do not here pretend to such Extravagant Privelages & Prerogatives as ones in England) very humbly Squatted themselves at our feet on the Bare floor; and in vain did I offer one of them my Chair, her politenefs would not permitt her to Accept of it, and being all thus seated we had a Puppet Dialogue Exhibited thro’ a Doors lead opening into another room; the Characters of the Drama were 2 Females, 3 Males and a Mastiff Dog; the Dialogue was spoken very loud & plain by different Voices behind the Scene, and continued near an hour; the puppets were managed Dextrously enough; but not understanding the Language, I could have no further Idea of the Plot, than it seemed to be a love Intrigue betwixt a student and a Nun, and made all the Company Laugh very Heartily.


The honest friar brother to our Hostefs also danced several Comic Dances, Directed the Gambols, and took a great deal of Pains to divert the Company: Whether the Entertainment was Extraordinary, or only a Common Christmas feast I know not, but it must have been a considerable Expence to the Master of the House, and Continued ‘till after 2 in the Morning. The Women a great many fine things, but so hung on that they made but a very indifferent Appearance. The Wives and Daughter s of the English and french, drefs as genteelly as pofsible, and tho’ nothing can be more Striking than this Superiority of their drefs, yet even the Nations are so tenacious of their own Customs that they will not Imitate them; but they are now beginning to do it.


The following Sunday night Senhor Jose Carnero, his brother, and both their Ladies returned the Visit at our house; and brought an Acquaintance along with him who played on the Violin; the Ladies Sung & played upon the Guittar, the Dancing began about 8 my Obstinate Plea of Ignorance had protected me the first Night, but now Alas! It availed me Nothing. All Resistance was in vain, One of the Ladies seized me by my two hands, and Hauled me into the middle of the Room, where Positively in Spite of Nature, and in Spite of Art, I was made to Dance Three Minuets, one with each Lady, and several Country Dances afterwards.

End of Diary